Why You Should Consider an Electric Motorcycle (Especially if You Have a Gas Bike!)
02.13.2018 - by John U'Ren
Why You Should Consider an Electric Motorcycle (Especially if You Have a Gas Bike!)

We recently had the opportunity to sit down for a Q&A with Jay Friedland, one of Plug In America’s board members, and a strong advocate of electric motorcycles. We talked with Jay about why electric motorcycles are great, what incentives are available, and what Plug In America is doing to help spread electric motorcycles far and wide.  We also discussed the impacts of highly polluting gasoline motorcycles and the efforts to take them off the road.

Question: How much do gasoline motorcycles pollute compared to gasoline cars?

Jay: All the motorcycles sold in 2017 polluted more than all the cars sold in 2017. Motorcycles are very efficient, but their engines are mostly unregulated.  Keep in mind that motorcycles typically ride about one third the average daily distance of passenger cars, and there are only one tenth as many motorcycles on the road as cars, yet that combination is still generating 16% more smog than all the cars on the road.  Over the last 20-25 years, cars have gotten much cleaner while motorcycles have not faced any significant new regulations. The last time there was an attempt to regulate the pollution of motorcycles was 2008-2009, right as the Great Recession hit.  Motorcycle manufacturers argued that if pollution regulations were mandated, they would have killed the industry.  As a result, the California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) backed off.

Until now, that is.

Currently, the ARB is in the process of reconsidering the regulations, starting with off-road dirt bikes.  Dirt bikes are extremely polluting.  Just one mile driven on a two-stroke off-road dirt bike is the equivalent of driving over 3,000 miles in an ordinary passenger car.  To make matters worse, over seventy percent of the off-road trails in California are in the mountains around the LA Basin. In the summer, all this pollution is descending into the LA Basin, creating a perfect storm of pollution.  These unregulated internal combustion engines pouring pollution into the LA basin are really counterproductive to all of the efforts to clean up Southern California’s air.

All the motorcycles sold in 2017 polluted more than all the cars sold in 2017…Just one mile driven on a 2-stroke off road dirt bike is the equivalent of going over 3,000 miles in an ordinary passenger car.

Q: What do we have to do to get these highly polluting bikes off the road (and off the off-road)?

Jay: The first step that the ARB will take is to get rid of the Red Sticker Program, which allows old two-stroke dirt bikes to be operated off-road.  These stickers are re-issued every year, so the simplest step is to not re-issue the stickers next year.  Ending this program would stop this program and reap a dramatic improvement in air quality very quickly. There are already three times as many “green sticker” dirt bikes on the off-road as “red sticker” bikes, so it’s really time that these old, dirty bikes are retired.  Note that this isn’t the first time such a program has been implemented; an identical program for four-wheel all terrain vehicles (ATVs) was phenomenally successful.  99.6% of all ATVs are now “green sticker” ATVs.

(For even more information on the Red Sticker Program, click here.)

Q: Where will all these suddenly illegal “red sticker” bikes go?

Jay: Some manufacturers may offer a scrappage program, whereby old bikes are turned into the manufacturers for credit towards a new bike.  This may be one of the areas where the ARB has to think it through.  The upside is that these old “red sticker” bikes are only a quarter of the dirt bikes out there.  Plus, there are plenty of “green sticker” bikes for sale, and of course electric bikes, too!

Zero FX Motorcycle

Q: What about on-road motorcycles?  What steps are being taken to make on-road bikes pollute less?

Jay: On-road motorcycles in California will likely be held to the Euro 4 and Euro 5 emissions standards. These are much more stringent emissions standards that aim to reduce the green house gas emissions and carbon dioxide emissions from internal combustion engines.  This will necessitate a phase-out of the motorcycle fleet, as new bikes that abide by new emissions standards replace older, more polluting bikes.  The thing is, manufacturers are already making these motorcycles for the European market.  They could bring these to the US at the snap of their fingers.  So it’s not as if the manufacturers will have to design new bikes.  For the older bikes, there may be a scrappage incentive.  Zero Motorcycles did a promotion where you could trade in a gas bike to get an electric bike and get $1,000 off.  This is an area where the states could step in and offer incentives to replace older bikes with newer, less polluting models.  Of course, the ultimate and ideal solution is to completely switch to electric motorcycles.

Q: Are there electric dirt bikes?  Do they have any advantages over gas dirt bikes?

Jay: Yes, there are! Besides their awesome instant torque and respectable range, electric dirt bikes have a huge advantage – they are quiet.  This may not seem like anything important, but consider that the noise pollution from dirt bikes is the reason why they are restricted to trails and areas far away from populated areas.  And these areas are going away.  There are progressively fewer and fewer places to ride a dirt bike and these keep getting farther and farther away.  With electric bikes, you have people who are riding them in their backyards!  Zero Motorcycles even held a 24-hour dirt bike race in the City of San Jose.  This is just something you can’t do with gas dirt bikes.

Locations of designated dirt bike riding areas. A “non-attainment area” is an area considered to have air quality worse than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as defined in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970.

Q: What are the barriers to widespread adoption of electric motorcycles? Can they be overcome in the short-term?

Jay: The big two factors with electric vehicles in general are price and range. Electric motorcycles are no exception.  From the range standpoint, current electric motorcycles meet the needs of 90% of the riders out there.  Current electric motorcycles can achieve up to 200 miles of range in the city, and over 100 miles on the highway.  Sure, there are always some riders who want to go really, really far on their motorcycle without refueling, but for the vast majority of riders, an electric motorcycle would easily meet their range needs. Electric motorcycles are especially well-suited for commuting, as 100 miles of highway or 200 miles of city riding is more than enough to get to and from work every day.  What you will see now is a climb to the range sweet spot where it is no longer a factor.  The cost of the battery is the primary reason why electric motorcycles cost more than gas versions.  As there are incremental improvements in battery cost, the price of electric bikes will become more and more cost competitive with ICE bikes.  When electric motorcycles are able to compete in the sub $7,000-price range with gas motorcycles, you’ll see a fairly quick switch, as people see that electric bikes have lower maintenance.  Remember, people with bikes tend to want to do their own maintenance, and having one bike in the stable that doesn’t need any maintenance is a huge plus, especially if you rely on that bike for daily riding.  Most motorcyclists own more than one motorcycle, meaning there really isn’t the same anxiety over replacing a gas motorcycle with an electric one as there is with electric cars.

When electric motorcycles are able to compete in the sub $7,000-price range with gas motorcycles, you’ll see a fairly quick switch, as people see that electric bikes have lower maintenance.

Consumers will get the electric motorcycle as an addition to their collection.  The major manufacturers are starting to wake up to electric motorcycles (Harley-Davidson, KTM, BMW, etc.) and are putting real effort into their development, bringing more choices to market.  At the end of the day, motorcyclists want to fly – and electrics are much closer to that.  I’ll say it again – the motorcycle market could tip faster than the passenger car market. You can see the motorcycle market dominated by electrics faster than car market dominated by electrics.

Lightning Motors LS-218 Electric Motorcycle. 100-mile range, 218 mph top speed. Whoa.

Jay: Did I happen to mention they’re a blast to ride?


Thank you, Jay, for taking the time to sit down with us.

Have a question of your own about electric motorcycles? Please let us know what you think in the comments below!

21 comments on “Why You Should Consider an Electric Motorcycle (Especially if You Have a Gas Bike!)”
  1. Sean O'Hare says:

    How? Less than 100 highway miles and 5 hours to recharge. Powertank included. What am i missing?

  2. Don says:

    The biggest problem with electric motorcycles is that they make no noise. That is the reason so many children have been killed in parking lots. The children and old people do not hear the electric vehicles coming! I was almost seriously injured by a electric car when I stepped out of my car and the electric car whipped into the parking spot trapping me between the two cars.

  3. Michael Cerkowski says:

    One big step the CARB could take it to find a way to make electric dirt bikes like the Sur Ron Light Bee (AKA Firefly) street legal in California. At $3500 the bike is clean, quiet, and has a 45MPH top speed that makes it great for urban riding and for riding to trails. The Kuberg Freerider is very similar, and the new street version of their bike also has most of what is needed for street riding in the US, like lights and turn signals. Which is more important: having one foot operated brake as is required of US street bikes, or being quiet and zero emission?

    1. Ken Mc says:

      Why do you think that a bike has to have a foot operated brake? My Suzuki Burgman 650 scooter has only hand controls. The left lever is the rear brake, the right lever is the front, the throttle is the right twist grip. Just like almost all the scooters.

  4. Ron Nath says:

    Electric motorcycles are the perfect one-person commuter option for those living in the sun-belt. They are not meant to replace anything else. I would gladly replace my 250cc commuter bike with an electric, if the price were comparable. Im eagerly waiting.

  5. Ron Boesl says:

    How about all the ICE and 2 cycle lawn mowers, lawn tractors, leaf blowers (seem like no one remembers a rake and a broom) I would like to see a study of this pollution both noise and particles.

  6. ken van says:

    Gasoline motorcycle pollution vs gas cars. Gas motorcycles use a little less gas than cars but what about there pollution ? Heres proof its WAY Worse. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Tl_gFoPqnw
    Ride a bike, Get an EV car or motorcycle instead.

  7. Stan Jaracz says:

    This is very interesting article and I have really learned something new, here. My next question is: What about other things that run on 2-stroke engine? The tolerance of emissions on transportation is that the exhaust gases are left behind, while moving forward. This doe not apply to power generators, lawn mowers, snow blowers, chain saws and other tools that produce emissions right where the user is. Children with their delicate lungs are often around, too. I envision heavy emotional campaign showing the poisoning power of these appliances. We need more data to support it. This would serve as a precedence to break the code on people’s attachment to ICE.

  8. Greener says:

    Electric motorcycles, are way too expensive. I understand that they are low maintenance and slowly pay for themselves from fuel and service savings over time, but because they are so expensive, that payback time is ridiculously long. Even used electric motorcycles are unbelievably expensive. Currently a used Zero will still cost more than a NEW gas bike. The unfortunate problem with electric motorcycles is that Zero is the only manufacturer who is leading electric motorcycles, and they are way too expensive, year after year. Ever since they became popular, I have been hoping that as battery pack prices reduce over time, Zero motorcycles will become cheaper and affordable, making them competitive to gas bikes and encourage big gas motorcycle manufacturers to launch their own electric versions. Every year as battery pack prices do reduce, Zero adds more and more capacity, which is great for range, but keeps their prices inflated. Matter of fact, their prices keep going up every year. A used 24 kWh Nissan LEAF electric car is cheaper than a used 11 kWh Zero S electric motorcycle. This is just an example of how ridiculously expensive current electric motorcycles are. Since no big motorcycle manufacturer is producing them, there is really no competition to Zero and a handful of others who make limited quantities of very expensive electric motorcycles. What the market needs are more electric motorcycle manufacturers who can mass produce and sell them at cheaper, competitive prices making gas motorcycles obsolete. This will never happen until Zero is leading the electric motorcycle industry.

  9. James says:

    Yes! but there iss no doubt electric motorcycles are our future. It will happen it’s only a matter of time as the battery technology will catch up!

  10. matt held says:

    BEING A POOR WHITE BOY it seems to me that the BIGGEST PROBLEM is MONEY or actually THE LACK OF IT !!! Most guys got thier rides cheap which is IMPOSSIBLE W/ELECTRICS .

  11. Gene C says:

    > There is no way an electric motorcycle can replace my BMW R 1100 RT any time soon

    Nope, and it doesn’t replace my FJR-1300 (which basically sits in the garage now)

    It did replace my SV-650 and my GSXR-750.

    And also gets my groceries. With 3 Givi Trekker bags on my Zero SR, I can carry more than a grocery cart full.

    I could carry passengers, but people have already seen my driving.

  12. Jim Notman says:

    I have a 2015 Zero DS. It is the most fun I have every had on a motorcycle. With very little maintenance and low operating costs I will never go back to a gas bike.

  13. Ken Mc says:

    These older motorcycles are often used strictly for vintage competition and not just to ride around. Also the cost of an E motorcycle that will go 200 miles of city driving is almost $20,000. My Zero FX will barely do 50 miles city and half that on the highway. I would also like to see a reference to the data representing how much gas motorcycles pollute. Most people I know ride average about 3,000-4,000 miles a year and do not ride long distances. “Real” fast charging capability will allow people to charge during lunch or rest stops so they can cover more distances.

  14. Butch says:

    I have an Alta Redshift MX electric dirtbike. I also have four other gas bikes. They are all awesome for what they do, but perhaps the Alta is the most awesome. It does not have significant range, but I don’t use it for that.

    1. Justin says:

      Yes, I agree. I own three bikes. My new Alta is the most fun to ride. Extra long rides and multi-day excursions off the grid are a cherished but small fraction of my riding. My Alta is usually ready to be re-charged when I am. I will also use this street legal bike for small errands around town too.

  15. mmalc says:

    There’s no way a BMW R 1000 RT can replace my Chevy Bolt EV. I frequently need to carry large loads, and occasionally extra passengers.

  16. Rodney Anderson says:

    There is no way an electric motorcycle can replace my BMW R 1100 RT any time soon. I’ve ridden it more than 1000 miles in a day 3 different times and made more 300+ mile rides in a day than I care to count. You simply cannot do any long distance touring with any currently available electric motorcycle and it will take a dramatic increase in range and an even more dramatic decrease in charging time to make that possible

    1. Al Purzycki says:

      I believe there are a number of bikes out there that offer DCFC, 30 minute charging to 80%. (A bathroom, coffee, and/or meal time) A pricey example would be the Energica EGO. Other manufactures, with more competitively priced models, will eventually follow as the demand for fast charging increases.

    2. Jason says:

      I’ve done several 500 mile days on a 2014 DS. Several people I know have gone further. Electric touring is not as easy, but to say it’s impossible is simply wrong.

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